When performing work on the inspection of buildings (structures) it should be guided by the requirements of the regulations in the field of construction acting in Ukraine.
All buildings (structures) regardless of their purpose, ownership, number of years, solidity, technical features are subject to periodic inspection to assess their technical condition and take founded measures to ensure the safety and security further use (conservation).
- defects and damaged structures (for example due to corrosion, temperature or otherwise);
- increasing operational loads and actions on structures under replanning, modernization and increasing the number of stories in a building;
- absence of the project design documentation;
- changes in the functional purpose of buildings and structures;
- restarting of buildings construction and structures;
- need for monitoring and assessing of buildings condition located near the buildings under construction;
- need for assess the condition of building constructions undergone to fire, natural disasters or industrial disasters;
- need for determine the serviceability of industrial and public buildings for normal operation as well as residential buildings to live in them;
- before the commissioning of buildings (structures), which have a higher level of responsibility. The need to perform these inspections must be founded;
- when it detects factor of failure state of individual structures or parts of structures (buildings);
- when planning refurbishment, reconstruction or technical re-equipment;
- if change of ownership;
- in the event of dispute resolution in court;
- at civil contracts conclusion to determine the actual cost of the facility;
- in the determination of ownership of unauthorized constructed urban development objects;
- at the request of representatives of state supervision.
1. Preliminary inspection includes:
- collection and analysis of technical documentation;
- overall view with assessment of structures state and identification of the most worn and emergency structures;
- programming tool of special inspections and maintenance tasks to perform work on inspection.
2. Detailed inspection includes:
- specification by measurement of elements sections, structural loads design, determine of actual physical and mechanical properties of materials (strength, elongation, modulus of elasticity, density, thermal conductivity, etc.) with instruments;
- identification, measurement, defects and damage structures sketching (displacement in the plan, settlement, tilt, deflection etc.);
- determining the deformation of joints and seams size, opening width and depth of cracks rods sections, concrete cover thickness;
- analysis of previous and instrumental inspection results.
3. Special inspections that include:
- specification of geotechnical data, geodetic and other investigations;
- construction testing with proof loads and impacts;
- long-term observation and measurement of deformation, settlement, tilt, temperature and humidity conditions and others.
At particular conditions depending on the responsibilities of buildings (structures) and their state, some inspection stages cannot be conducted.
Overall results of the inspection and analysis of the results are issued in a report.
In general the report should include:
- data of technical documentation its completeness and quality, description of design solutions, conclusions about the bad, outdated and incorrect decisions;
- brief description of construction technology with the designation of deviations from the project that took place as well as defects occurred on the construction phase;
- data characterized the actual and design mode of buildings (structures) operation containing information about the actual load and influences, as well as the inner nature of the environment;
- review of buildings (structures) indicating the status of individual parts and structures;
- information and defects and damage structures plan;
- the results of geodetic measurements and other structures, non-destructive methods of control and other actual research and testing;
- the results of physical and mechanical tests of samples, chemical analysis of materials and environment;
- the results of analyzes of defects, damage and their causes;
- testing calculations of structural elements and systems;
- conclusions about the state structures and their serviceability for further use or repair;
- information needed to fill technical condition of building (construction) certificate;
- compact technical solutions concerning repair or replacement methods of defective structures, recommendations to improve the operation of structures and foundations.
The cost and terms of technical inspection of buildings and structures determined by the following factors: